Saturday, March 8, 2014

Jenis jenis ikan predator Esox

Yg pertama Esox Lucius dulu ya?


Name :Esox Lucius/Northeren Pike

Classification\t
Actinopterygii | Esociformes | Esocidae

Size / Weight / Age


Max length : 137 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); 150 cm TL (female); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 556); common length :55 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 28.4 kg (Ref. 40637); max. published weight: 35 kg; max. reported age: 30 years (Ref. 556)

Length at first maturity

Lm 37.6, range 25 - 63 cm

Environment
Demersal; potamodromous; freshwater; brackish; depth range 0 - 30 m (Ref. 1998), usually 1 - 5 m (Ref. 1998)

Climate / Range

Subtropical; 10°C - 28°C (Ref. 12741); 74°N - 36°N, 167°W - 180°E

Distribution

Circumpolar in fresh water. North America: Atlantic, Arctic, Pacific, Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins from Labrador to Alaska and south to Pennsylvania, Missouri and Nebraska, USA (Ref. 5723). Eurasia: Caspian, Black, Baltic, White, Barents, Arctic, North and Aral Seas and Atlantic basins, southwest to Adour drainage; Mediterranean basin in Rhône drainage and northern Italy. Widely distributed in central Asia and Siberia easward to Anadyr drainage (Bering Sea basin). Historically absent from Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean France, central Italy, southern and western Greece, eastern Adriatic basin, Iceland, western Norway and northern Scotland. Widely introduced and translocated throughout Europe (Ref. 59043). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction (Ref. 1739).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 6 - 8; Dorsal soft rays (total): 17 - 25; Anal spines: 4 - 7; Anal soft rays: 10 - 22; Vertebrae: 57 - 65. Diagnosed from all other freshwater fishes in Europe by the combination of the following characters: long snout; large mouth; dorsal fin origin slightly in front of anal origin; and lateral line with 105-148 scales (Ref. 59043). Distinguished by its long, flat, 'duck-bill' snout; its large mouth with many large, sharp teeth; and the rearward position of its dorsal and anal fins (Ref. 27547). Gill rakers present only as patches of sharp teeth on gill arches; lateral line notched posteriorly (Ref. 27547). Dorsal located far to the rear; anal located under and arising a little behind dorsal; pectorals low on body, base under opercle; pelvic fins low on body; paired fins rounded, paddle-shaped (Ref. 27547). Caudal fin with 19 rays (Ref. 2196).

Biology
Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)
Occurs in clear vegetated lakes, quiet pools and backwaters of creeks and small to large rivers (Ref. 5723). Usually solitary and highly territorial. Enters brackish water in the Baltic. Adults feed mainly on fishes, but at times feed heavily on frogs and crayfish (Ref. 27547). Cannibalism is common. In arctic lakes, it is sometimes the only species present in a given water body. In such cases, juveniles feed on invertebrates and terrestrial vertebrates; large individuals are mainly cannibals (Ref. 59043). Cannibalistic as juveniles (Ref. 30578). Feces of pike are avoided by other fish because they contain alarm pheromones. Deposits feces at specific locations, distant from its foraging area (Ref. 59043). Eggs and young are preyed upon by fishes, aquatic insect larvae, birds, and aquatic mammals (Ref. 1998). Does not generally undertake long migrations, but a few may move considerable distances (Ref. 27547). Oviparous (Ref. 205). This fish can be heavily infested with parasites, including the broad tapeworm which, if not killed by thorough cooking, can infect human; is used as an intermediate host by a cestode parasite which results to large losses in usable catches of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in some areas; also suffers from a trematode which causes unsightly cysts on the skin (Ref. 9988). Excellent food fish; utilized fresh and frozen; eaten pan-fried, broiled, and baked (Ref. 9988). Valuable game fish (Ref. 5723). In spite of numerous attempts to culture this species, it was never entirely domesticated and does not accept artificial food (Ref. 30578). Locally impacted by habitat alterations (Ref. 59043).









Name : Esox Niger/Chain Pickerel
Classification
Actinopterygii | Esociformes | Esocidae

Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 99.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 41.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. published weight: 4,250 g (Ref. 4699); max. reported age: 9 years (Ref. 12193)
Length at first maturity
Lm ?, range 16 - ? cm

Environment
Demersal; non-migratory; freshwater; pH range: ? - 22.0; depth range ? - 6 m (Ref. 39106)

Climate / Range
Temperate; 10°C - 20°C (Ref. 2059); 46°N - 25°N

Distribution
North America: Nova Scotia, Canada (introduced) to southern Florida, USA; Gulf coast west to Sabine Lake drainage in Louisiana, USA; Mississippi River basin north to Kentucky and Missouri, USA. Introduced to Lakes Ontario and Erie drainages and elsewhere.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 17 - 21; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 11 - 13; Vertebrae: 49 - 54. Body rather slender, somewhat compressed, deepest near middle. Head large, naked, and depressed above, profile slightly concave over snout; snout long, broad, and rounded; mouth large, nearly horizontal; lower jaw projecting; maxillary extending to, or slightly beyond anterior margin of pupil. Lateral teeth on lower jaw and vomer enlarged. Cheek and opercle fully scaled. Gill rakers on lateral and media surfaces of arches. Pigmentation: Greenish above, sometimes very dark, venter pale; scales above with golden luster; laterally with light areas enclosed by dark chain-like markings; dark upper side interrupted by light vertical bars; suborbital bar almost vertical or with slight posterior slant; rays of dorsal, anal, pectorals, and pelvic fins with light interradial membranes, caudal fin base marbled with dark pigment, tips dusky; pupil of eye yellow.

Biology
Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)
Live in vegetated lakes, swamps, and backwaters and quiet pools of creeks and small to medium rivers (Ref. 26373). Also found in deep, cold water with little or no vegetation (Ref. 39109, 39108). Adults migrate to deeper water during winter (Ref. 39110, 39097, 39111) undertaking shoreward spawning migrations soon after spring ice disappears (Ref. 39109). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Juveniles tend to lie motionless near shore or burrow themselves in mud beneath debris (Ref. 39112). Larvae hide among vegetation (Ref. 39113). Oviparous, with pelagic eggs.

Name : Esox Niger/Chain Pickerel Classification Actinopterygii | Esociformes | Esocidae Size / Weight / Age Max length : 99.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 41.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. published weight: 4,250 g (Ref. 4699); max. reported age: 9 years (Ref. 12193) Length at first maturity Lm ?, range 16 - ? cm Environment Demersal; non-migratory; freshwater; pH range: ? - 22.0; depth range ? - 6 m (Ref. 39106) Climate / Range Temperate; 10°C - 20°C (Ref. 2059); 46°N - 25°N Distribution North America: Nova Scotia, Canada (introduced) to southern Florida, USA; Gulf coast west to Sabine Lake drainage in Louisiana, USA; Mississippi River basin north to Kentucky and Missouri, USA. Introduced to Lakes Ontario and Erie drainages and elsewhere. Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions Short description Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 17 - 21; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 11 - 13; Vertebrae: 49 - 54. Body rather slender, somewhat compressed, deepest near middle. Head large, naked, and depressed above, profile slightly concave over snout; snout long, broad, and rounded; mouth large, nearly horizontal; lower jaw projecting; maxillary extending to, or slightly beyond anterior margin of pupil. Lateral teeth on lower jaw and vomer enlarged. Cheek and opercle fully scaled. Gill rakers on lateral and media surfaces of arches. Pigmentation: Greenish above, sometimes very dark, venter pale; scales above with golden luster; laterally with light areas enclosed by dark chain-like markings; dark upper side interrupted by light vertical bars; suborbital bar almost vertical or with slight posterior slant; rays of dorsal, anal, pectorals, and pelvic fins with light interradial membranes, caudal fin base marbled with dark pigment, tips dusky; pupil of eye yellow. Biology Glossary (e.g. epibenthic) Live in vegetated lakes, swamps, and backwaters and quiet pools of creeks and small to medium rivers (Ref. 26373). Also found in deep, cold water with little or no vegetation (Ref. 39109, 39108). Adults migrate to deeper water during winter (Ref. 39110, 39097, 39111) undertaking shoreward spawning migrations soon after spring ice disappears (Ref. 39109). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Juveniles tend to lie motionless near shore or burrow themselves in mud beneath debris (Ref. 39112). Larvae hide among vegetation (Ref. 39113). Oviparous, with pelagic eggs.



Name : Esox Niger/Chain Pickerel
Classification
Actinopterygii | Esociformes | Esocidae

Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 99.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 41.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. published weight: 4,250 g (Ref. 4699); max. reported age: 9 years (Ref. 12193)
Length at first maturity
Lm ?, range 16 - ? cm

Environment
Demersal; non-migratory; freshwater; pH range: ? - 22.0; depth range ? - 6 m (Ref. 39106)

Climate / Range
Temperate; 10°C - 20°C (Ref. 2059); 46°N - 25°N

Distribution
North America: Nova Scotia, Canada (introduced) to southern Florida, USA; Gulf coast west to Sabine Lake drainage in Louisiana, USA; Mississippi River basin north to Kentucky and Missouri, USA. Introduced to Lakes Ontario and Erie drainages and elsewhere.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 17 - 21; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 11 - 13; Vertebrae: 49 - 54. Body rather slender, somewhat compressed, deepest near middle. Head large, naked, and depressed above, profile slightly concave over snout; snout long, broad, and rounded; mouth large, nearly horizontal; lower jaw projecting; maxillary extending to, or slightly beyond anterior margin of pupil. Lateral teeth on lower jaw and vomer enlarged. Cheek and opercle fully scaled. Gill rakers on lateral and media surfaces of arches. Pigmentation: Greenish above, sometimes very dark, venter pale; scales above with golden luster; laterally with light areas enclosed by dark chain-like markings; dark upper side interrupted by light vertical bars; suborbital bar almost vertical or with slight posterior slant; rays of dorsal, anal, pectorals, and pelvic fins with light interradial membranes, caudal fin base marbled with dark pigment, tips dusky; pupil of eye yellow.

Biology
Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)
Live in vegetated lakes, swamps, and backwaters and quiet pools of creeks and small to medium rivers (Ref. 26373). Also found in deep, cold water with little or no vegetation (Ref. 39109, 39108). Adults migrate to deeper water during winter (Ref. 39110, 39097, 39111) undertaking shoreward spawning migrations soon after spring ice disappears (Ref. 39109). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Juveniles tend to lie motionless near shore or burrow themselves in mud beneath debris (Ref. 39112). Larvae hide among vegetation (Ref. 39113). Oviparous, with pelagic eggs.

 
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